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Thursday, December 07, 2006

The Cosmic

By Dr. Zaghloul Al-Naggar

Allah Said in Surat (Chapter) Fussilat verse 11 on the Holy Quran : "Then turned He to the heaven when it was smoke, and said to it and to the earth: Come both, willingly or unwillingly. They both said, "We come willingly." (Quran - 41:11)

In the first third of the 20th century, astronomers noticed the expansion of the universe, the thing that has aroused a lot of controversy before scientists could admit it. The glorious Quran refers to this fact before 1400 years ago as Allah Say in Surat (Al-Dhareyat – "Drivers of the Wind"), verse 47: "We have built the heaven with might, and We will continue to expand it." (Quran - 51:47)

This verse was sent when the whole world believed that the Universe is stable and unchanging. This thought prevailed till mid 20th century when astronomers discovered that the Universe is expanding and its galaxies are getting distant from us and from each other at almost the speed of light (300.000 Km/s). Besides, all the mathematical equations and the laws of physics support what astronomers found. Hence, astronomers, theoretical physicists and astrophysicists assume that if we go back in time, we'll find that all - the visible and invisible – forms of matter and energy in the cosmos must have been compressed in an elementary minute body whose size is almost zero, and where the dimensions of time and place contract. This elementary body was in a state of density and heat that no human mind can ever imagine and where there is no place for the laws of physics. This elementary body exploded – by Allah's command - in what's called by scientists the Big Bang (and by the Quran {Al-fatq} which means the phase when the earth and heavens exploded after being a one solid mass). Therefore, the Quran is the first to mention this great cosmic event exceeding any human knowledge as Allah Say:

"Have not those who disbelieve known that the heavens and the earth used to be one solid mass that we exploded into existence? And from water we have made everything living. Will they not then believe?" (Quran - 21:30) {surat Al-Anbeyaa (The prophets)-verse 30}

When an elementary body with these characteristics explodes, it turns into a cloud of smoke from which the earth and all the celestial bodies were created. Again the Quran exceeds all the human knowledge when it mentions the phase of "smoke" before 1400 years as Allah Say: "Say (O Muhammad, unto the idolaters): Disbelieve you verily in Him Who created the earth in two Days, and ascribe you unto Him equals? He (and none else) is the Lord of the Worlds [9] He set on it (the earth) mountains standing firm, and blessed it, and measured therein its sustenance in four Days, in accordance with (the needs of) those who seek (Sustenance) [10] Then turned He to the heaven when it was smoke, and said to it and to the earth: Come both, willingly or unwillingly. They both said, "We come willingly [11]" (Quran - 41:11) {surat Fussilat (Detailed)}

On the 8th of November1989, NASA launched its Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite in an orbit that is 600 Km away from the earth and the effect of clouds and pollutants in the lower layers of the earth's atmosphere. 10 light years away from the earth, COBE sent millions of photos and information about the remnants of the smoke resulted from the Big Bang. It was a phase of a dark smoke that has prevailed in the Universe before the heavens and the earth were created. Exalted be He Who Say before 1400 years: "Then turned He to the heaven when it was smoke, and said to it and to the earth: Come both, willingly or unwillingly. They both said, "We come willingly [11]" (Quran - 41:11)

The ramnants of the cosmic dust

The state of "smoke" that prevailed after the Big Bang (after exploding the solid mass of the

heavens and the earth):

After the Big Bang, theoretical physicists and astrophysicists started to analyse the course of cosmic events. Although we believe that these events are far from being known to us as Allah Say in surat Al-Kahf (The Cave) "I never permitted them to witness the creation of the heavens and the earth, nor the creation of themselves [51]" (Quran - 18:51) Yet, the constancy and continuity of the cosmic laws help us somehow to create a right image about these unknown events – in spite of the limitedness of man's senses and his mental abilities on one hand, and the limitedness of his time and space on the other hand. Besides, things such as long-range missiles, their satellites, and the sensitive recording and measuring devices helped a lot in forming an image of the cosmic dust (smoke) resulting from the Big Bang whose remnants were found at the far end of the visible universe (up to 10 billion light years away) to be an evidence that the qur'anic word "smoke" has not been chosen haphazardly and it accurately describes the state of the Universe before the creation of earth and heavens.

Astrophysics and the cosmic "smoke":
after the Big Bang, the whole Universe turned into a cloud of smoke from which the earth and heavens were later created. Physical calculations tell us that the size of the Universe before the Big Bang was almost zero (the elementary minute body) as both matter and energy were greatly compressed and the dimensions of time and place had no existence. After the explosion of this elementary body (the Big Bang), it turned into a ball of radiation and elementary particles that continued to expand and cool at a great speed until it turned into a cloud of smoke.
Physical calculations said that the heat of the Universe during the first few seconds after the Big Bang was ranging from trillion Kelvin degrees up to billions of Kelvin degrees (Steven andHoking 1988). This cloud of smoke consisted of photon, electron and neutron particles and their antiparticles. If the Universe didn't continue to cool and expand steadily and accurately, the elementary particles of the matter would have annihilated each other and the Universe would have vanished…but Allah who perfectly created everything has kept it.
Neutrons may exist in the shape of what's called the dark matter. Alan Goth believed that after the Big Bang, the Universe expanded at a tremendous rate that caused the increase of its diameter 2910 times in a part of a second. Soon after that – according to theoretical physics calculations, the Universe continued to cool till it reached billion Kelvin degrees. At this degree, protons bound to electrons to form hydrogen nuclei or deutron nuclei which decayed into hydrogen, or to more protons and neutrons to from helium nuclei along with heavier elements such as lithium and beryllium. However, helium and hydrogen nuclei were in a majority.
Theoretical calculations tell us that shortly after that, the production of the helium and the
heavier elements stops and the Universe kept expanding and cooling for a long time. As it cooled, the temperature decreased to reach a few thousands Kelvin degrees, while the atoms began to from and the cosmic "smoke" began to accumulate forming numbers of great nebulas

As the Universe continued to expand and cool, a number of these nebulas began – with the effect of gravity - to condense on themselves, and to whirl around themselves at a gradually accelerating speed till masses of condensed gases formed inside it. Hydrogen and helium gases started to condense on themselves at higher rates – as the masses continued to whirl around themselves inside these nebulas – and consequently their heat increased till it reached the level necessary for the nuclear fusion. Then, the stars emitting heat and light began to form.

Nuclear fusion continues inside the high mass stars to form heavier elements such as carbon, oxygen and other heavy elements till the star's core turns completely into iron and called then "nova". This "nova" explodes into "supernova." The remnants of the supernova explosion spread with their heavy elements forming planets. Only what remains in the galaxy gases is the amount that helps to form a new star (by Allah's will).2% of our sun's mass is made up of 2 heavy elements; namely, hydrogen and helium. Of course these heavy elements didn't form inside the sun, but they came to it with the remnants of the supernova explosion. In spite of the fact that both matter and energy are greatly compressed in the celestial bodies (such as the stars and its satellites), the visible universe seems to be highly homogeneous and surrounded by a symmetrical background radiation wherever the observer was. Moreover, the expansion of the universe haven't yet reached the critical point of collapsing and recompacting; the thing that asserts that this universe is meticulously controlled. The visible universe is still expanding - after 10 billion years (the minimum lifetime of the universe) - at the same rate of the critical expansion. If the universe exceeded just hundreds of billions of this rate, the universe would have collapsed immediately. So exalted be He who kept it from collapsing.

The theory of relativity can't explain that because the laws of physics and the dimensions of both time and place collapse at this preliminary body {(Al-ratq) which means the phase when the heavens and the earth were one solid mass} before it explodes with its mass, density, tremendous heat and negligible size. No rational man can ever imagine that this masterly creation of the universe is anything but a command from The Creator (Exalted be He) Who Say in suratYassin, verse 82: "Verily, when He intends anything, His Command is only to say to it: "Be" and it is!" (Quran - 36:82)

Physicists say that if the electric charge of the neutron changed a little, no nuclear fusion would happen in the stars and if - supposedly - this happens, the stars would not be able to explode in the shape of supernova. The average rate of cosmic expansion must have been accurately chosen as its current rate is still very close to the critical point that kept the Universe from collapsing.

Theoretical physicists and astrophysicists state that the cosmic "smoke" was a mixture of hot dark gases that carry some elementary particles of matter and antimatter. These pairs in creation that spread in the Universe witness that Allah is only One. The word "smoke" is the best word to describe this state, so exalted be He who mentioned it in the Quran before 1400 years.

The elementary particles of the matter that were spread in the early cosmic smoke helped to from hydrogen and helium nuclei. After that, they reached the point that allows the formation of fixed atoms of heavier elements through the combination of the hydrogen and helium nuclei. The smoke kept prevailing carrying the atoms of the elements from which the heavens and the earth were later created.

Theoretical studies made it clear that the Universe in this smoky state was in a homogeneous sate except some slight difference in the density and temperature among its regions. This is because some of this smoke turned (by Allah's command) into parts where a great amount of matter and energy is highly centered in what's called nebulae. According to the fact that gravity is in direct proportion to the amount of matter and energy, they compacted more and more and the stars and the rest of the celestial bodies formed in this nebulae. In their early state, the stars formed from the light elements such as hydrogen and helium which gradually turned, with the nuclear fusion process; into heavier elements inside these stars according to the mass of each.

A photo of the background radiation
The red spots are the hot areas
The blue spots are the cool areas

According to scientists, the mass of this dark smoke is 90% of the mass of the matter in the visible universe. George Smote, a responsible for the Explorer's trip, wrote a report in 1992 about the conclusion of this great number of cosmic photos. The most important of these photos was the homogeneous state of the smoke that was prevailing in the Universe before the Big Bang. The leftover glow that exists in the shape of background radiation was an evidence of the Big Bang. These results invalidate all the false theories that tried, out of infidelity and atheism, to deny the Creator (exalted be He)and proved that the Universe is constant without beginning or ending such as Herman Bundy and Freed Howell's theory of constant universe which they announced in 1949 and Richard Tolman's theory of oscillating universe. Proving the existence of the cosmic "smoke" and the background radiation after proving that the Universe is expanding makes it crystal clear that our Universe has a beginning and must one day have an end. Moreover, all the photos sent by COBE and published in April in 1992 affirm this fact.

The formation of galaxies nuclei from the cosmic "smoke":

The elementary body from which the Universe was created was packed with matter and energy that its size was almost zero. After the explosion of this body and the expansion of the universe, the radiation expanded and the electromagnetic force filled the Universe. This means that the more the Universe expands, the less hot and dense it becomes and the less the energy centers.
The first form of energy in the Universe is the gravitational force. It is a cosmic force in the meaning that everybody in the Universe is under its control according to the body's mass and the amount of energy in it. It is along-range force and it keeps the construction and the dimension of the visible universe. May be it is this force that Allah mean in surat l Ra'd (the Thunder), verse 2 when He Say:

"Allah is He Who raised the heavens without any pillars that youcan see; then He is on the Throne, He has subjected the sun and the moon (to his Law), each one runs (in its orbit) to an appointed time. He regulates all affairs, explaining the signs in detail, that you may be certain of meeting your Lord." (Quran - 13:2)

Al- Hajj {the pilgrimage}) verse 65 when He Say:

"Do you not see that Allah has committed in your service everything on earth? And the ships run in the sea by His command? And He withholds the heaven from falling on the earth except with His permission, for Allah is The Merciful, The Compassionate to mankind." (Quran - 22:65)
Surat Al- Rom (The Romans) when He Say in verse 25:

"And one of His signs is that the heaven and the earth subsist by His command, then when He calls you out of the earth, one call, you will immediately come out." (Quran - 30:25)

surat Luqman verse 10 when He says:

"He created the heavens without any pillars that you can see." (Quran - 31:10)

Surt Fater (Originator), verse 41

"It is Allah Who sustains the heavens and the earth, lest they vanish, and if they were to vanish: there is not one that could hold them after Him. Verily He is Most Forbearing, Oft-Forgiving." (Quran - 35:41)

Allah (Exalted be He) swore (and He is in no need of swearing) by the "Ceiling raised high" in surat Al-Tur (Mount Sinai) verse 5. This qur’anic oath was by the heavens raised without visible pillars.
The second form of energy is the electromagnetic force which works among the electric charged particles. It is more powerful than the gravitational force million times. It is represented in the repelling force among the particles of different charges and in the attracting force among the particles of like charges. This repelling and attracting forces annihilate each other. Hence, the total of the electromagnetic force in the universe is almost zero. However, as far as the particles and the matter atoms are concerned, this force remains the most powerful force in the Universe. The electromagnetic force is the force that compels the electron to whirl around the nucleus exactly like the gravitational force which compels the earth (and the other planets of the Milky Way) to whirl around the Sun. This proves the uniformity of the Universe from its smallest particle to its largest galaxy and that Allah is only One without a partner or a rival. Physicists say that the electromagnetic force is the result of the alternation of great numbers of particles which almost have no weight and called photons.
The third force is the third nuclear force which represents the glue that holds nucleons together. This force reaches its utmost in the ordinary levels of energy and it weakens with the gradual increase of these levels.
The fourth force is the weak nuclear force and it is the force responsible for the radioactivity. Whereas the strong nuclear force weakens in the high levels of energy, both the weak nuclear force and the electromagnetic force reach their utmost in these levels.

The unification of forces in the Universe:

Physicists presume that the electromagnetic, strong, and weak nuclear forces were a unified force described as the "grand unification theory." This theory is considered a step to another theory that unifies all the cosmic forces into one great force, the thing that proves that Allah is only One. From this great force, the four known cosmic forces (the gravitational force, the electromagnetic force, and both the strong and the weak nuclear forces) emerged right with Big Bang {Al-fatq} which means the phase when the earth and heavens exploded after being a one solid mass). Except for the gravitational force, all the other cosmic forces reach the same rate at very high levels of energy called "Grand unification energy). Hence, these three forms of energy are three facets of one force, the gravitational force could be part of which as it is a very long-range force that has control over the cosmic bodies and the great complexes of matter. Therefore, it could be, theoretically, neglected as a kind of simplification when dealing only with elementary particles or even with atoms of elements.
This uniformity of the Universe and the energy in it, along with the spread of pairs in creation is a clear-cut evidence that the Creator of this Universe, unlike His creatures, is only One without a partner.

-Smoke in Arabic means "Dukhan" which means literally "dust and hot gas."

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